Defi ne ‘health status

 

Question 1 (3  marks )

  1. Defi ne ‘health status’. 1  mark
  2. Outline the difference between mortality and morbidity as measurements of health status. 2  marks

Question 2 (4  marks )

  1. Give one example of a social determinant and one example of a behavioural determinant that could contribute to poorer health status for those living in rural and remote areas. 2 marks           social determinant

behavioural determinant

SECTION A – Question 2

  1. Select one of the examples given in part a. and explain how it might contribute to variations in health status between those living in rural and remote areas and those living in major cities. 2  marks

example

explanation

Question 3 (2  marks )

Complete the following table by providing one major food source of iodine and one major function

SECTION A – continued

 

Question 4 (3  marks )

People aged 15 years or over who usually eat the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables

age group (years)

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia’s welfare 2011,

Australia’s welfare series no. 10, cat. no. AUS 142, Canberra, 2011, p. 367

  1. Identify one trend from the graph in relation to the percentage of people who usually eat the

recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables.        1  mark

  1. Green leafy vegetables are a major food source of folate and iron.

Complete the following table by identifying one other major food source for each of these

nutrients. 2  marks

Nutrient Major food source
folate  
iron  

Question 5 (4  marks )

Identify two indicators of the Human Development Index (HDI) and outline how they lead to variations in the HDI between Australia and a developing country.

indicator 1 outline

indicator 2 outline

Question 6 (2  marks )

Explain one difference between the biomedical model of health and the social model of health.

Question 7 (3  marks )

The SunSmart program is jointly funded by Cancer Council Victoria and VicHealth. The original campaign ‘Slip Slop Slap’ has evolved to include ‘Seek’ shade and ‘Slide’ on sunglasses, and the program focuses on both the harms and benefi ts of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

The success of the program has resulted in Victorians being more than twice as likely to wear hats and sunscreen as they were in the 1980s. More than 90 per cent of all Victorian primary schools are now participating in the SunSmart schools program.

Source: adapted from http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au

a. Identify one priority of VicHealth that is evident in the SunSmart program. 1  mark
b. Describe how the SunSmart program helps to achieve VicHealth’s mission. 2  marks

Question 8 (2  marks )

Outline two examples of how Medicare is different from private health insurance.

1.

2.

Question 9 (2  marks )

How does the United Nations (UN) defi ne ‘sustainability’?

 

Question 10 (3  marks )

Under-five mortality rate, 1990 and 2010 (deaths per 1000 live births)

Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2012, United Nations, New York, 2012, p. 26

The graph above shows the progress being made towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. The vertical line shows the target set for 2015.

  1. Using data from the graph, describe the progress being made towards achieving Millennium

Development Goal 4 in developed and developing regions.         2  marks

developed regions

developing regions

  1. Provide one reason why Millennium Development Goal 4 is important. 1 mark

SECTION A – continued

Question 11 (3  marks )

In 2012, the then Australian Foreign Minister, Bob Carr, announced the introduction of a

Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework to guide the Australian aid budget over the next four years. Highlights of the Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework include the following.

  • More than 30 per cent of the aid budget will be delivered through partnerships with multilateral organisations.
  • At least 10 per cent of the aid budget will be delivered through partnerships with non-government organisations.

Source: adapted from http://foreignminister.gov.au

  1. Identify one type of aid that is not mentioned in the highlights of the Comprehensive Aid

Policy Framework above. 1  mark

  1. What is multilateral aid? In your answer, include one 2  marks

Question 12 (4  marks )

  1. List two examples of how the UN promotes world peace and security. 2 marks

1.

2.

  1. Select one of the examples listed in part a. and explain how this could contribute to an

improvement in health status.       2  marks

END OF SECTION A

SECTION B

Question 1 (8  marks )

The Australian Government plays a major role in promoting healthy eating through legislation developed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and the development of the Dietary Guidelines.

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

A range of nutritional and other information is added to food labels to help consumers make safe and healthy food choices. Some information on labelling is required by legislation according to FSANZ. Other information is included voluntarily by manufacturers.

Dietary Guidelines

In 2012, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) conducted a review of the Australian Dietary Guidelines that were originally released in 2003. The updated guidelines were released in 2013.

  1. Identify two examples of information that must appear on food labels in Australia and

New Zealand according to legislation.      2  marks           1.

2.

  1. Explain how the information on food labels could assist in promoting healthy eating. 2  marks
  2. State two ways in which the Dietary Guidelines assist in promoting healthy eating. 2 marks

1.

2.

SECTION B – Question 1 – continued

 

  1. Non-government organisations, such as Nutrition Australia, also provide dietary advice to promote healthy eating.

Describe one example of how Nutrition Australia achieves this. 2  marks

Question 2 (6  marks )

Men’s Shed is an initiative of the Australian Men’s Shed Association. It has been developed in many local communities across Australia, and it offers men an opportunity to socialise with other men in their community and learn new skills, such as woodworking and the restoration of old furniture.

The Australian Men’s Shed Association is a not-for-profi t organisation that is funded by the Federal Government. It is now the largest association in Australia focused on men’s health and wellbeing.

Source: adapted from http://www.mensshed.org

  1. Outline two ways in which this initiative could improve men’s health. 2 marks

1.

2.

  1. Identify and explain two principles of the social model of health that are evident in the Men’s

Shed initiative.     4  marks

1.

2.

SECTION B

Question 3 (9  marks )

AusAID has supported work in the Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands. This program has achieved success in reducing malaria by focusing on simple activities such as providing treated mosquito nets, spraying households with insecticides, eliminating mosquito breeding grounds and improving the diagnosis of malaria in local health facilities. Education programs are run in schools and there are local drama performances in villages to educate people about malaria. A group of women has also formed a ‘Mother’s Union’ to share the message with the community. The Solomon Islands is currently on track to eliminate malaria within two years.

Source: adapted from Focus, AusAID, vol. 27 no. 3, Oct.–Dec. 2012, p. 27;

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

  1. Outline two reasons why Isabel Province is committing resources to the elimination of

malaria.    2  marks

1.

2.

  1. Describe how two elements of sustainability contribute to the effectiveness of the Isabel

Province malaria program.           4  marks

1.

2.

  1. Isabel Province has been able to achieve improvements in malaria rates through the support of AusAID.

Identify one of the objectives of AusAID and explain how the malaria program contributes to

achieving this objective.   3  marks

objective

explanation

SECTION B

Question 4 (9  marks )

  1. Outline the purpose of Millennium Development Goal 5: Improve maternal health. 2 marks
  2. Describe a program that could be implemented by a non-government organisation to improve

the maternal health of women in a developing country.    3  marks

  1. Explain how the program described in part b. could promote sustainable human development. 4  marks

SECTION B

Question 5 (5  marks )

Premature deaths at ages 15–64 years,

deaths per

100000 population

highest SES               lowest SES

SES – socio-economic status

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia’s health 2010,

Australia’s health series no. 12, cat. no. AUS 122, Canberra, 2010, p. 254

  1. Using information from the graph, identify how socio-economic status is related to deaths

per 100 000.         1  mark

  1. Identify one biological determinant and explain how it might contribute to the differences in deaths per 100 000 between the population groups with the highest and lowest socio-economic

status.       2  marks

biological determinant              explanation

SECTION B – Question 5

  1. Death rates are one way in which health status can be measured. Incidence and prevalence are other measurements of health status.

Outline the difference between incidence and prevalence. 2  marks

Question 6 (11  marks )

  1. Outline key features of the condition known as asthma. 2 marks
  2. Provide two reasons why asthma is identifi ed as a National Health Priority Area. 2 marks

1.

2.

SECTION B – Question 6

  1. List one Federal Government and one State Government responsibility in relation to

asthma.     2  marks

Level of government Responsibility
Federal  
State  
  1. Outline one indirect and one intangible cost to the community associated with asthma. 2 marks  indirect cost

intangible cost

  1. Explain one health promotion program that has been introduced to reduce the burden of

disease associated with asthma.     3  marks

SECTION B

Question 7 (12  marks )

  1. Consider the following information about health and health services in Australia and

http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS2011_Full.pdf

Using information from the table, explain how access to healthcare might account for the

difference in life expectancy between Australia and Swaziland.  4  marks

SECTION B – Question 7

 

Possible Dreams International ‘Mealie Meal’ Project

Due to copyright restriction, this material is not supplied

Source: adapted from http://www.possibledreamsinternational.org

  1. Explain the term ‘food security’. 2 marks

SECTION B – Question 7 – continued

  1. Using examples from the ‘Mealie Meal’ project, discuss the interrelationships between health,

human development and sustainability.   6  marks

 

END OF QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOK

Extra space for responses

Clearly number all responses in this space.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TURN OVER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A script book is available from the supervisor if you need extra paper to complete your answer. Please ensure you write your student number in the space provided on the front cover of the script book. At the end of the examination, place the script book inside the front cover of this question and answer book.

Victorian Certifi cate of Education 2013

STUDENT NUMBER         Letter

Figures

Words

HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Written examination

Wednesday 6 November 2013

     Reading time:  3.00 pm to 3.15 pm (15 minutes)

     Writing time:  3.15 pm to 5.15 pm (2 hours)

QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOK

Structure of book

Section Number of questions Number of questions to be answered Number of marks
A 12 12 35
B 7 7 60

Total 95

  • Students are permitted to bring into the examination room: pens, pencils, highlighters, erasers, sharpeners and rulers.
  • Students are NOT permitted to bring into the examination room: blank sheets of paper and/or white out liquid/tape.
  • No calculator is allowed in this examination.

Materials supplied

  • Question and answer book of 20 pages.
  • Additional space is available at the end of the book if you need extra paper to complete an answer.

Instructions

  • Write your student number in the space provided above on this page.
  • All written responses must be in English.

Students are NOT permitted to bring mobile phones and/or any other unauthorised electronic devices into the examination room.

© VICTORIAN CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY 2013

SECTION A

Question 1 (3  marks )

  1. Defi ne ‘health status’. 1  mark
  2. Outline the difference between mortality and morbidity as measurements of health status. 2  marks

Question 2 (4  marks )

  1. Give one example of a social determinant and one example of a behavioural determinant that could contribute to poorer health status for those living in rural and remote areas. 2 marks           social determinant

behavioural determinant

SECTION A – Question 2

  1. Select one of the examples given in part a. and explain how it might contribute to variations in health status between those living in rural and remote areas and those living in major cities. 2  marks

example

explanation

Question 3 (2  marks )

Complete the following table by providing one major food source of iodine and one major function

SECTION A – continued

 

Question 4 (3  marks )

People aged 15 years or over who usually eat the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables

age group (years)

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia’s welfare 2011,

Australia’s welfare series no. 10, cat. no. AUS 142, Canberra, 2011, p. 367

  1. Identify one trend from the graph in relation to the percentage of people who usually eat the

recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables.        1  mark

  1. Green leafy vegetables are a major food source of folate and iron.

Complete the following table by identifying one other major food source for each of these

nutrients. 2  marks

Nutrient Major food source
folate  
iron  

Question 5 (4  marks )

Identify two indicators of the Human Development Index (HDI) and outline how they lead to variations in the HDI between Australia and a developing country.

indicator 1 outline

indicator 2 outline

Question 6 (2  marks )

Explain one difference between the biomedical model of health and the social model of health.

Question 7 (3  marks )

The SunSmart program is jointly funded by Cancer Council Victoria and VicHealth. The original campaign ‘Slip Slop Slap’ has evolved to include ‘Seek’ shade and ‘Slide’ on sunglasses, and the program focuses on both the harms and benefi ts of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

The success of the program has resulted in Victorians being more than twice as likely to wear hats and sunscreen as they were in the 1980s. More than 90 per cent of all Victorian primary schools are now participating in the SunSmart schools program.

Source: adapted from http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au

a. Identify one priority of VicHealth that is evident in the SunSmart program. 1  mark
b. Describe how the SunSmart program helps to achieve VicHealth’s mission. 2  marks

Question 8 (2  marks )

Outline two examples of how Medicare is different from private health insurance.

1.

2.

Question 9 (2  marks )

How does the United Nations (UN) defi ne ‘sustainability’?

 

Question 10 (3  marks )

Under-five mortality rate, 1990 and 2010 (deaths per 1000 live births)

Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2012, United Nations, New York, 2012, p. 26

The graph above shows the progress being made towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. The vertical line shows the target set for 2015.

  1. Using data from the graph, describe the progress being made towards achieving Millennium

Development Goal 4 in developed and developing regions.         2  marks

developed regions

developing regions

  1. Provide one reason why Millennium Development Goal 4 is important. 1 mark

SECTION A – continued

Question 11 (3  marks )

In 2012, the then Australian Foreign Minister, Bob Carr, announced the introduction of a

Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework to guide the Australian aid budget over the next four years. Highlights of the Comprehensive Aid Policy Framework include the following.

  • More than 30 per cent of the aid budget will be delivered through partnerships with multilateral organisations.
  • At least 10 per cent of the aid budget will be delivered through partnerships with non-government organisations.

Source: adapted from http://foreignminister.gov.au

  1. Identify one type of aid that is not mentioned in the highlights of the Comprehensive Aid

Policy Framework above. 1  mark

  1. What is multilateral aid? In your answer, include one 2  marks

Question 12 (4  marks )

  1. List two examples of how the UN promotes world peace and security. 2 marks

1.

2.

  1. Select one of the examples listed in part a. and explain how this could contribute to an

improvement in health status.       2  marks

END OF SECTION A

SECTION B

Question 1 (8  marks )

The Australian Government plays a major role in promoting healthy eating through legislation developed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and the development of the Dietary Guidelines.

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

A range of nutritional and other information is added to food labels to help consumers make safe and healthy food choices. Some information on labelling is required by legislation according to FSANZ. Other information is included voluntarily by manufacturers.

Dietary Guidelines

In 2012, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) conducted a review of the Australian Dietary Guidelines that were originally released in 2003. The updated guidelines were released in 2013.

  1. Identify two examples of information that must appear on food labels in Australia and

New Zealand according to legislation.      2  marks           1.

2.

  1. Explain how the information on food labels could assist in promoting healthy eating. 2  marks
  2. State two ways in which the Dietary Guidelines assist in promoting healthy eating. 2 marks

1.

2.

SECTION B – Question 1 – continued

 

  1. Non-government organisations, such as Nutrition Australia, also provide dietary advice to promote healthy eating.

Describe one example of how Nutrition Australia achieves this. 2  marks

Question 2 (6  marks )

Men’s Shed is an initiative of the Australian Men’s Shed Association. It has been developed in many local communities across Australia, and it offers men an opportunity to socialise with other men in their community and learn new skills, such as woodworking and the restoration of old furniture.

The Australian Men’s Shed Association is a not-for-profi t organisation that is funded by the Federal Government. It is now the largest association in Australia focused on men’s health and wellbeing.

Source: adapted from http://www.mensshed.org

  1. Outline two ways in which this initiative could improve men’s health. 2 marks

1.

2.

  1. Identify and explain two principles of the social model of health that are evident in the Men’s

Shed initiative.     4  marks

1.

2.

SECTION B

Question 3 (9  marks )

AusAID has supported work in the Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands. This program has achieved success in reducing malaria by focusing on simple activities such as providing treated mosquito nets, spraying households with insecticides, eliminating mosquito breeding grounds and improving the diagnosis of malaria in local health facilities. Education programs are run in schools and there are local drama performances in villages to educate people about malaria. A group of women has also formed a ‘Mother’s Union’ to share the message with the community. The Solomon Islands is currently on track to eliminate malaria within two years.

Source: adapted from Focus, AusAID, vol. 27 no. 3, Oct.–Dec. 2012, p. 27;

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

  1. Outline two reasons why Isabel Province is committing resources to the elimination of

malaria.    2  marks

1.

2.

  1. Describe how two elements of sustainability contribute to the effectiveness of the Isabel

Province malaria program.           4  marks

1.

2.

  1. Isabel Province has been able to achieve improvements in malaria rates through the support of AusAID.

Identify one of the objectives of AusAID and explain how the malaria program contributes to

achieving this objective.   3  marks

objective

explanation

SECTION B

Question 4 (9  marks )

  1. Outline the purpose of Millennium Development Goal 5: Improve maternal health. 2 marks
  2. Describe a program that could be implemented by a non-government organisation to improve

the maternal health of women in a developing country.    3  marks

  1. Explain how the program described in part b. could promote sustainable human development. 4  marks

SECTION B

Question 5 (5  marks )

Premature deaths at ages 15–64 years,

deaths per

100000 population

highest SES               lowest SES

SES – socio-economic status

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia’s health 2010,

Australia’s health series no. 12, cat. no. AUS 122, Canberra, 2010, p. 254

  1. Using information from the graph, identify how socio-economic status is related to deaths

per 100 000.         1  mark

  1. Identify one biological determinant and explain how it might contribute to the differences in deaths per 100 000 between the population groups with the highest and lowest socio-economic

status.       2  marks

biological determinant              explanation

SECTION B – Question 5

  1. Death rates are one way in which health status can be measured. Incidence and prevalence are other measurements of health status.

Outline the difference between incidence and prevalence. 2  marks

Question 6 (11  marks )

  1. Outline key features of the condition known as asthma. 2 marks
  2. Provide two reasons why asthma is identifi ed as a National Health Priority Area. 2 marks

1.

2.

SECTION B – Question 6

  1. List one Federal Government and one State Government responsibility in relation to

asthma.     2  marks

Level of government Responsibility
Federal  
State  
  1. Outline one indirect and one intangible cost to the community associated with asthma. 2 marks  indirect cost

intangible cost

  1. Explain one health promotion program that has been introduced to reduce the burden of

disease associated with asthma.     3  marks

SECTION B

Question 7 (12  marks )

  1. Consider the following information about health and health services in Australia and

http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS2011_Full.pdf

Using information from the table, explain how access to healthcare might account for the

difference in life expectancy between Australia and Swaziland.  4  marks

SECTION B – Question 7

 

Possible Dreams International ‘Mealie Meal’ Project

Due to copyright restriction, this material is not supplied

Source: adapted from http://www.possibledreamsinternational.org

  1. Explain the term ‘food security’. 2 marks

SECTION B – Question 7 – continued

  1. Using examples from the ‘Mealie Meal’ project, discuss the interrelationships between health,

human development and sustainability.   6  marks

 

END OF QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOK

Extra space for responses

Clearly number all responses in this space.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TURN OVER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A script book is available from the supervisor if you need extra paper to complete your answer. Please ensure you write your student number in the space provided on the front cover of the script book. At the end of the examination, place the script book inside the front cover of this question and answer book.

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