Describe the mental dimension of health.
Explain the glycaemic index.
The Australian Government is responsible for administering the Pharmaceutical Benefi ts Scheme (PBS). a. What is the PBS?
SECTION A – continued
The 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (Children’s Survey) was commissioned by the Department of Health and Ageing, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and the Australian Food and Grocery Council.
Among others, the Children’s Survey showed the following results.
• In the children surveyed, sugar contributed to between 23–24 per cent of total energy intake. The Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet moderate in sugar (energy from sugar should not contribute more than 20 per cent of overall energy intake).
• The proportion of all children who met the recommendations for a diet moderate in sugar increased with age (29 per cent of those aged 4–8 years compared with 39 per cent of 14–16 year olds).
• Results indicate that some micronutrient intakes such as calcium, sodium and magnesium are likely to be problematic, particularly for the 14–16 year olds who were the least likely to meet the recommended intake.
Source: 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (Children’s Survey)
used by permission of the Australian Government
In May 2010, the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) collectively agreed to a ‘global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol’. The strategy recommends ten areas for national action that countries should focus on.
Source: adapted from World Health Organization (2010); www.who.int/en/ List one of the core functions of the WHO and identify two areas above that demonstrate this core function. core function
Despite strong economic growth over recent years, poverty among Indonesia’s 237 million people remains widespread.
Describe one program that the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) could implement in Indonesia to reduce poverty.
Protecting livelihoods in Zimbabwe
Sarah Ncube, from the Chidobe Ward in Zimbabwe, used to struggle to produce enough food for her family and to pay for her children’s school fees.
In 2008, she came across the Protracted Relief Program that helped her grow a wider variety of crops. Through the program, she was able to buy seeds and other agricultural supplies such as fertiliser.
After just a year, her family harvested enough grains – including sorghum, millet and maize – to fi ll their stomachs every day. She’s now selling the crops they don’t eat for cash, providing $30–$50 in income a year.
Through the program, Sarah participated in a health and hygiene program to help keep her new collection of pots and plates spotlessly clean. She’s joined a savings and loans group to help her manage her fi nances and she’s also helping to manage the local borehole and water pump so the wider community can benefi t from access to a reliable water source in the drought-ridden area.
Source: Focus, AusAID, Vol. 26 No. 2, June–Sept 2011
SECTION A – continued
In 2011, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare released a report called ‘The health of Australia’s males’. It reported that one in six Australian males did not use Medicare services in 2008–2009. This number is lower than that for females.
END OF SECTION A
‘In many ways cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be considered Australia’s most costly disease. It costs more lives than any other disease and has the greatest level of health expenditure. It also imposes a burden of disease, measured [by] disability and premature death, second only to cancer.’
Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011, Cardiovascular disease series, cat. no. CVD 53, Canberra, p. x a. Describe cardiovascular disease.
SECTION B – Question 1 – continued
Some population groups have much higher rates of illness and death from CVD than others, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, those from the most socio-economically disadvantaged groups and those living in remote areas of Australia.
determinant 2 explanation
Percentage of Australian adults who are overweight or obese by sex and age, 2007–2008
Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011, Cardiovascular disease series, cat. no. CVD 53, Canberra, p. 32
SECTION B – Question 2 – continued
priority area 1 description
priority area 2 description
Consider the following graph.
percentage of global DALYs (total: 1.53 billion)
Source: World Health Organisation, www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs349/en/ a. Explain what is meant by global marketing.
SECTION B – Question 3 – continued
1 + 3 = 4 marks
The Heart Foundation is a non-government agency that provides dietary advice to help maintain healthy weight to lower the risk of contracting a range of diseases. The Heart Foundation advises the following.
SECTION B – Question 4
The world is on track to achieve Millennium Development Goal 7 – ‘Ensure Environmental Sustainability’. The target for access to safe drinking water is within reach. More needs to be done to achieve the target for sanitation. In 2008, 2.6 billion people had no access to a hygienic toilet and 1.1 billion people were defecating outside.
Silus Simba is a leader of a program known as ‘Round Loo’. It is part of a WaterAid Australia program that helps communities build their own toilets in Papua New Guinea. People themselves pay a small contribution of $10 towards the cost of each toilet. WaterAid Australia provides the funds to employ a community leader, such as Silus, and some of the materials needed to build the toilets.
Part of my job is to encourage community members to form a group to work on the toilets . . . and then in return they make some money for food . . .
I travel in [a] loo car that has a megaphone on top playing the ‘poo’ song! The poo song has very good messages about hygiene and is in the local language so it is a very effective hygiene education tool . . .
It is effective at getting people to think about washing their hands.
SECTION B – Question 5
AusAID is responsible for managing the Australian Government’s overseas aid program. a. List two objectives of AusAID.
1 + 4 = 5 marks
SECTION B – Question 6
|Type of aid||Description||Example|
Indicators of health status for a range of countries (2009)
|Obesity % of population||HIV
|United Kingdom||35 860||80||5||12||9||24.4||25.2||2||15|
|Burkina Faso||1 170||52||166||560||7||1.7||3.0||12||397|
|Chad||1 160||48||209||1 200||5||2.4||3.8||34||456|
Source: World Health Organisation and Human Development Reports
SECTION B – Question 7 – continued
END OF QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOK
Clearly number all responses in this space.
A script book is available from the supervisor if you need extra paper to complete your answer. Please ensure you write your student number in the space provided on the front cover of the script book. At the end of the examination, place the script book inside the front cover of this question and answer book.
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