Describe the significance of the information provided in the narrative of the case study to explain the symptoms of the disease.


An eighteen year old student presents with a history of diarrhoea. He has just returned from a three-month visit to India. During the first weeks of his visit he developed diarrhoea, which settled after treatment. A few days before his return he developed more severe diarrhoea associated with abdominal pain and a loss of appetite. He is passing several small volume stools a day which are blood stained. On examination he is thin and dehydrated. He has generalised abdominal tenderness and active bowel sounds. Other systems are normal. The results of investigations are as follows:

Investigation Result
Haemoglobin 14g/dl
White cell count 12 x 109/L with 80% neutrophils  
Abdominal radiograph Normal
Faecal sample Blood and mucus present
Bacterium isolated from faeces Gram negative, does not ferment lactose, serotype 1 secretes an exotoxin. Non- motile straight rod.


Section A. Unseen questions Diet 1

  1. What is the likely diagnosis?.                                                                             2 marks
  2. Provide the Genus and species of the causative agent.                                   2 marks
  3. Determine whether the information in the table is normal and explain the significance of each

result.                                                                                                                 8 marks

  1. Describe the significance of the information provided in the narrative of the case study to explain the symptoms of the disease.                                                               4 marks
  2. Describe the main pathogenicity factors used by your chosen microbe to cause the infection

described in this case.                                                                                        4marks Section B. Answer 2 out of 3

  1. Give an account of respiratory infections to include the names of causative microbes, the source, portal of entry and route of transmission of these microbes and antibiotic therapy.

20 marks

  1. Write an essay on hospital acquired infections, naming bacteria responsible for such infections and include in your essay an account of existing and new innovations in infection

control procedures.                                                                                            20 marks

  1. Provide a detailed account of the relationship humans have with microbes in terms of parasitism and commensalism providing illustrations naming the microbes involved and the

resulting infection(s).                                                                                          20 marks


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