Functional genomics makes use of genome-wide measurements of several different classes of biological molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins, other).
Pick two different classes of molecules. For each of these, give a brief account of current technology for genome-wide measurements and discuss methodological challenges associated with such measurements. (7p)
Functional genomics is expected to contribute widely to improved diagnosis and treatment in future health care.
In your Masters project you are involved in a larger project aiming to identify non-invasive protein biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. The group has access to modern equipment in protein separation and analysis including several mass spectrometry instruments.
In the first part of the project you aim at identifying whether cells of breast cancer tissue have altered expression of any cell surface transmembrane receptors. You have access to frozen biopsy material from both cancerous and healthy tissues from individual patients and you want to extract proteins from these tissues to identify potential altered expression.
The risk of “incidental findings” in genomic research has caused a huge international debate on research ethics.
Give a brief description on what is meant by the term “incidental findings”.
Present important arguments for and against disclosing such findings. Argue why you consider the arguments important.
Identification of transcription factor binding sites in promoter regions is an important step in mapping of gene regulatory networks.
Describe briefly how we can identify potential binding sites computationally, using the scanning method, and experimentally, using the ChIP-seq approach. What is the main difference between the two methods with respect to number of sites that will be mapped?
Classical forward genetics have successfully been used to unravel many developmental pathways in C. elegans.
Great insights have been obtained from fluorescence microscopy. The ultimate goal is the study of subcellular architecture and dynamics.
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