Ethics When submitting an application to the Regional Ethical Committee they ask you to give reason to, and discuss the advantages and the risks the project may cause for the subjects, the society and science. In addition you will need to explain how you plan to store the data you are collecting and how you will protect the anonymity and the good health of the participants of your study. Explain and discuss these elements in a in a study where you will collect muscle tissue, blood and physical testing data on 100, 16-20 year old girls and boys before and after 3 months of supervised endurance exercise training.

 

1. Statistics

1a. Below is a table of four datasets. Use the provided data and compute summary statistics of the four sets, including means, variance, sample variance and correlation. Compare the results between all four sets.

Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 4
x y x y x y x y
10,0 8,04 10,0 9,14 10,0 7,46 8,0 6,58
8,0 6,95 8,0 8,14 8,0 6,77 8,0 5,76
13,0 7,58 13,0 8,74 13,0 12,74 8,0 7,71
9,0 8,81 9,0 8,77 9,0 7,11 8,0 8,84
11,0 8,33 11,0 9,26 11,0 7,81 8,0 8,47
14,0 9,96 14,0 8,10 14,0 8,84 8,0 7,04
6,0 7,24 6,0 6,13 6,0 6,08 8,0 5,25
4,0 4,26 4,0 3,10 4,0 5,39 19,0 12,50
12,0 10,84 12,0 9,13 12,0 8,15 8,0 5,56
7,0 4,82 7,0 7,26 7,0 6,42 8,0 7,91

1b. Using the results from 1a, how would you describe the relationships between x and y in the four sets? What steps, if any, can be taken to improve your analysis of the relationships?

2. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)

Explain and discuss why RCT is acknowledged as the ʺgold standardʺ for clinical trials?

3. Ethics

When submitting an application to the Regional Ethical Committee they ask you to give reason to, and discuss the advantages and the risks the project may cause for the subjects, the society and science. In addition you will need to explain how you plan to store the data you are collecting and how you will protect the anonymity and the good health of the participants of your study. Explain and discuss these elements in a in a study where you will collect muscle tissue, blood and physical testing data on 100, 16-20 year old girls and boys before and after 3 months of supervised endurance exercise training.

4. Epidemiology

4.1 During the 23 years from 1990 to 2012, the number of Norwegians dying from cancer increased 9.6%, from 10,096 to 11,062 (Figure 2). If a news reporter asked you how these numbers could be regarded as an increase in cancer mortality rather than a “general perception” of stable cancer mortality in Norway? What issues about interpretation of these numbers would be important to explain to the reporter? What other information you would need to draw a conclusion?

4.2 Assuming perfect information, which measure — mortality, incidence, or survival — is the best index of possible progress against cancer? Why?

 

Figure 2.

5. Experimental studies

A rat strain X develops severe hypertension after several months of age.

5.1. Use this animal model to design two experimental studies to investigate the therapeutic and the preventive benefits of exercise training on hypertension.

5.2. What type (aerobic or resistive), intensity and volume of exercise you would suggest in your experimental design to study the impact of exercise and exercise dose on hypertension? How many exercised groups you would include in your study?

6. Publications

6.1. How will you decide who should be an author when you publish your master thesis paper? 6.2. Discuss the key elements in the Consort Statement and how adhering to it may improve the quality of RCTs

Good luck J

Trine

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