Explain the sequential steps of host defenses that are initiated when a wound gets infected


Examination question 1 (35 points).

  1. Explain the sequential steps of host defenses that are initiated when a wound gets infected (7p)
  2. What triggers activation of the three complement pathways? What are the main biological functions of complement factor split products a? (4p)
  3. Explain how Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized by an immune cell and activates it to produce cytokines (4p)
  4. How is interleukin-1 produced? (4p)
  5. Explain adjuvancy (3p)
  6. Natural killer cells (NK cells) express killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors

(KIRs). What purpose do these receptors serve? (3p)

  1. How does NK-cells kill target cells? Describe the different pathways initiated in the target cell. (10p)

Examination question 2 (15 points).

Respirable organic dust like spores and animal proteins may cause allergic alveolitis (type III hypersensitivity reaction, hypersensitivity pneumonitis), which may be seen in farmer’s lung, bird breeder’s lung and mushroom cultivator’s lung. a) Explain the immunologic mechanism of allergic alveolitis (9)

  1. b) Describe briefly the different clinical phases with major cell types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (6)

Examination question 3 (20 points).

  1. Describe the most important differences in antigen-recognition by B-cells and Tcells (5p)
  2. Sketch and explain the differences in antigen presentation by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules (cellular expression, type of antigens, intracellular pathways and type of immune response that is activated) (10p)
  3. What is cross-presentation of antigens? In what cells does it occur? Discuss mechanisms for how cross-presentation can happen. (5p)

Examination question 4 (15 points).

  1. Draw the structure of an antibody and indicate major functions (3p)
  2. Describe the mechanism of class switching (3p)
  3. Describe factors contributing to diversity for the T-cell receptor and explain/draw the stepwise mechanism. When and where during T-cell development is this happening (9p)

Examination question 5 (15 points).

  1. When naïve T-cells are activated they differentiate to effector subsets. List the major subsets (5p)
  2. Describe the Th1/Th2 balance (5p)
  3. What type of immune response is best for fighting virus infections? (1p)
  4. Why are type I interferons efficient in antiviral defences. (4p)
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