Major side effects of blood doping abuse.



  1. Briefly discuss the following (5 marks each)
    1. Major side effects of blood doping abuse.
    2. Agents masking pain enhance exercise performance.
    3. Major side effects of Designer drugs
    4. Alpha-Reductase Inhibitors and why they are abused by athletes.
    5. Plasma Expanders and what they are used for?
    6. Therapeutic exemption drugs.                                                             (30 marks)
  2. Critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GC/MS and immunoassay techniques used to detect drugs of abuse. Give examples.

(10 marks)

  1. Critically discuss this statement: Legalising performance enhancing drugs in sports improves athletic performance, decreases abuse, but reduces interest in sport.

(10 marks)

  1. Critically discuss the use of caffeine, with and without Creatine, to enhance performance. The discussion should also include reference to their effectiveness and possible side effects.

(10 marks)


  1. Critically evaluate the abuse of FOUR of the following agents and their mechanism of action to enhance performance. State the advantages and side effects of each, with examples (10 marks each).


  1. Gene doping
  2. Amphetamines and stimulants
  3. Diuretics and Weight control
  4. Polyphenol Antioxidants supplements
  5. Erthropoeitin and Oxygen carriers
  6. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

(40 marks) END OF PAPER

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