Measure of association for the cohort study As a form of observational study, it is necessary to understand the risk factors for the disease and determine the absolute risk of the subjects. Since the study focused on possible causes through the risk factors, relative difference measures of association are applicable including the relative risk/ rate and the relative odds/ odds ratio. As the study also focuses on the risk factors that affect the chronic disease, the ratio measures help in identifying whether the disease is associated with the exposures. Furthermore, it is necessary to assess whether the association is strong. The odds ratio (OR) allows comparison on different risk factors in the cohort study. The odds ratio, risk ratio and the incident rate ratio indicate the measures of effect between exposure and outcome (Tripepi et al., 2007)
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