Outline at least two available chemistries for covalently attaching protein antibodies to glass.



Question 1) (20points, 2pages)

Protein immobilization

In order to create lab-on-chips for quantifying the presence of selected proteins it is necessary to immobilize capture proteins on the chip. With optical readout it is preferred to make the chip in glass.

  1. Outline at least two available chemistries for covalently attaching protein antibodies to glass.
  2. What options do you have to evaluate the degree of attachment?

Question 2) (10 points 1 page)

Metabolomics and microsystems

  1. a) How can microsystems be useful in metabolomics? Describe the experimental work-flow for metabolite analysis and suggest improvements for each step based on nano/microtechnology in relation to standard/current procedures.

Question 3) (10points, 1 pages)

Atomic Force Microscopy

  1. What is the working principle of AFM?
  2. Briefly describe three examples on how AFM/cantilevers can be used in medicine.

Question 4) (20points, 2 pages)

Nanoimprint lithography NIL

  1. How does nanoimprint lithography work and what makes it unique?
  2. As a preparation to make a 3D stem cell niche, you need to find the density (2D spatial resolution) of a protein that gives the best stem-cell differentiation in your system. Describe how you can use the nanoimprinter for creating that surface.

Question 5) (15points, 2 pages)

Many cells cannot be grown satisfactorily in 2D plastic dishes, including your favourite cell.

  1. What seems to be the components that are missing from traditional plastic cell culture dishes?
  2. It is a true challenge to build 3D cell cultures that harbour multiple cell types at specific locations and at the same time maintaining perfusion of nutrients and waste. Let us say that you have managed to create a perfusable biomimetic scaffold on chip. Can you think of a way to provide niches in that scaffold so you can promote immobilisation of your two cell types at specific locations in the scaffold? What are the problems of doing this?
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