Outline the key steps in transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signalling. Which classes of Smads are involved, and what are their functions?

 

Question

Outline the key steps in transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signalling. Which classes of Smads are involved, and what are their functions?

Question 2

  • (4p) How do growth factors such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF) activate the MAP kinase pathway?
  • (4p) Describe how PI 3-kinase can be activated by growth factor signalling, and how this may promote cell growth and survival.

Question 3

Describe how an activated growth factor receptor can become downregulated by degradation. Which roles does ubiquitin play in this process? Illustrate with a figure.

Question 4

  • (2p) Which types of effector systems are activated downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)?
  • (3p) Describe how protein kinase C can be activated downstream of both receptor tyrosine kinases and GPCRs.

Question 5

How does NFκB mediate inflammatory responses? Describe how NFκB can be activated by receptor signalling.

Question 6

Describe the extrinsic (receptor-mediated) apoptotic pathway.

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