Temperature regulation


Temperature regulation

Allan will attend Norseman Extreme Triathlon for the first time this year and has several concerns regarding completion of the competition. First of all he is concerned about the low temperature in the water. In addition he is concerned about the air temperature in the mountains, both on the bike leg and towards the end of the marathon.

  1. Water temperature during the swim leg is expected to be about 13 °C. During the swim heat may be lost in various ways. What ways for heat loss are most important under swimming in cold water? (2p)
  2. What areas of the body will have the greatest significance for heat loss during the swim. Justify your answer and please come with some suggestions for how this can be reduced. (5p)
  3. In all swimming competitions in cold water it is mandatory to wear a wetsuit. In some competitions it is also allowed to use a swim cap and socks made of neoprene. Explain what makes a wetsuit work so well. What is the most efficient garment of swim cap or neoprene socks to prevent heat loss in cold water. Please elaborate and justify your answer. (5p)
  4. There will be a big difference when it comes to the relationship between heat production and heat loss in the different parts of the bike leg. Assume that riding in a long uphill, flat part or a long downhill, and use it to explain how the relationship between heat production and heat loss may change in the different situations. Do you have any advice to Allan how he can reduce the risk for this to be a problem? (5p)
  5. Apply your knowledge about the relationship between the factors that may effect the direction and size of heat loss between the body and the environment. Illustrate your answer with a simple formula explaining how these factors are interrelated. Use your own words and explain what the formula illustrate to Allan. (8p)


List the macronutrients. What macronutrient is the most important to fuel before an endurance event and why? (5p)

Advice a marathon runner on how to eat and drink in the days before an event and on the day of his marathon competition which will start at 2 p.m. in a hot and humid environment. (20p)


Humans have explored the underwater world for centuries, and with the invention of self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), it is now also a large recreational activity.

  1. List at least four unique risks related to SCUBA diving. (4p)
  2. Upon returning to the surface, a diver will enter a state known as supersaturation. What does this mean? (6p)
  3. The barophysiology researchers and the exercise researchers at the department of circulation and medical imaging combined their knowledge in order to provide new and novel insights to the adverse effects of decompression. Describe, using your knowledge from the lecture and literature, the surprising effects that were discovered. Your answer should include what the different research groups are working with, the rational for combining the research areas (hint: bubbles and exercise), and how it relates to decompression sickness. (15p)

Altitude & Space

  1. Discuss the physiology behind individual variability in endurance performance at low, moderate and high altitude (12,5 points)
  2. Astronauts go to extreme altitude on a space mission and are exposed to microgravity which has negative effects on the body. Which effects does microgravity have on the cardiovascular system, muscular systems and skeletal systems? (12,5 points)
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