1: The lungs have a state and size of equilibrium where there is a balance between elastic forces pulling the thorax wall outwards and the lungs inwards. Thus, we don’t need to use respiratory muscle activity to maintain this state. The different volumes of the lungs can be described by dynamic and static lung volumes. What is the name of the total gas volume we have in this equilibrium state?
2: What is the function of the sodium-potassium pump?
3: And what is the result of this process?
4: The kidney produces urine to get rid of waste products. What is the mechanism best describing how the “pre-urine” is produced in the glomerulus?
5: And how much pre urine is produced in all nephrons of both kidneys during 24 hours?
6: What is the effect of antidiuretic hormone?
7: The method called restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is used to:
8: Which characteristics of the hippocampus can be studied with MRI?
9: The structural and functional organization of the human body can be described on several different levels. Cells are the basic unit of life, yet cells can differ fundamentally when it comes to form, protein and organelle content, and function.
How can such differences between to cell types be explained?
10: What happens to the frequency of a disease if a new treatment prevents people from dying, but has no curative (= healing) effect?
11: Hypertension (high blood pressure) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases like heart attack, stroke, etc. Which of the following is the most important cause of hypertension?
12: The blood pressure is usually measured by inflating a cuff around the upper arm, and then reducing the pressure gradually. Which of the statements below are correct in relation to this procedure?
13: And what is the limit between high normal blood pressure (prehypertension) and manifest hypertension (stage 1)?
14: The ejection fraction is used a measure of ventricular function. However, this has some limitations. Endurance training increases left ventricular volume and reduces heart rate. A certain (male) cross country skier has an end diastolic left ventricular volume of 250 ml. During rest, he has a normal cardiac output of 4.8 litres /min with a heart rate of 42 beats / min. What is the resting ejection fraction?
15: During exercise, he has the ability to increase the ejection fraction to 85%. End diastolic volume does not increase during exercise in the healthy. His maximal heart rate is 185 beats / min. What is his maximal cardiac output?
16: Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a measure of aerobic fitness. During maximal exercise, the oxygen extraction (= arteriovenous O2 difference) may be as high as 90% (i.e. arterial oxygen saturation of 100%, venous saturation of 10%). One gram of hemoglobin binds 1.4 ml O2. Given a body weight of 85 kg and hemoglobin of 15.4 g/dl, what is then his VO2max?
17 Endurance training increases the maximal oxygen uptake. What is the factor that is increased by training, and thus responsible for increased fitness?
18: The partial pressure of oxygen in the air decreases with altitude. If the partial pressure is reduced by 50%, how much will this reduce the oxygen saturation of blood?
19: A certain clinical study shows treatment 1 to be better to reduce the mortality (number of deaths) than treatment 2 for a certain disease with a p value (significance) of 10%. What does this mean?
20: The result were a little disappointing, as we like the significance level of a clinical study to be below 5% for the result to be useful. So the study power was calculated, and was found to be only 70% for the patient number and desired significance level of 5%. What does that mean?
A That only 70% of the patients would profit from treatment 1 over treatment 2 B That 70% of the patients would survive with treatment 1, as opposed to only 30% with treatment 2
21: A recent study of different measures of left ventricular function gave the following results for mean values in the (healthy) study group: Mean ejection fraction 59%, mean systolic shortening of the left ventricle: 17 mm, mean systolic tissue velocity: 9.1 cm/s and mean systolic strain rate (shortening velocity per length unit) – 1.1 s-1
To compare the usefulness of the different measures, we look at the reproducibility of the results, doing repeated measurements. Which measure of repeatability would be best here for comparison of the accuracy of the different measures?
22 Ultrasound Doppler can measure blood velocity. We are interested in measuring the blood velocity at a certain depth. This is done by pulsed Doppler. How is the depth selectivity achieved?
23: Which of these factors are important for the resolution in an ultrasound image?
24: What are the main biological effects of diagnostic ultrasound?
25: What is the principle of PET (positron emission tomography) scan?
26: A researcher has performed a radioimmunoassay. The setup includes standards, a negative control, a positive control and 50 samples from an experiment. Upon evaluating the results, she finds that the negative control is higher than the predefined limit. What is the best conclusion she can draw? A The setup is reliable if the positive control is OK
27 What is an oncogene?
28: You happen to be admitted to the cardiology department for chest pain and palpitations (a noticeably rapid, strong, or irregular heartbeat due to agitation, exertion, or illness) and is being examined by Dr. Asbjørn Heart, a consultant in cardiology. Upon completion of the examination, he uses an Electronic health record system to prepare a clinical note. You suffer from atrial fibrillation. You are put on a anticoagulant (a substance having the effect of retarding or inhibiting the coagulation of the blood), discharged from the hospital the next day, and scheduled for a followup with Dr. Heart within three weeks.
Five days later, you develop a nose bleeding (that might be related to the use of the anticoagulant). You rush to visit your primary care physician (fastlege). He queries his primary care EHR-system, but cannot find any discharge letter from the hospital, and is not aware that you are using an anticoagulant. He seeks to find out by making a phone call to Dr. Heart.
Which of the following clinical purposes of Electronic health record (EHR) systems applies to the situation of your primary care physician?
29: Which hardware component in an MR system enables spatial encoding of the signal?
30: The stomach epithelium secretes hydrochloric acid into the lumen, making the contents very acidic. What is the function of this low pH?
31: 7 – 9l water per day enters the digestive system from food, drink and from local secretion. Only 1 – 2 dl is excreted in the feces. Where is the main part absorbed?
32: In diabetes glucose is found in the urine as a sign of elevated blood sugar. What is the mechanism for this?
33: And what will happen if there are large amounts of glucose in the urine?
34: A blood vessel has a narrowing in a short segment. What will always happen to the blood dynamics in this narrow segment? (Velocity: meters/sec, Flow: litres/min)
35: A child has been wounded by steel fragments from a cluster bomb. Which of these imaging methods should definitely not be used to locate the fragments in the body for safety reasons?
36: And which method would be best from a diagnostic point of view?
37: Hyperventilation may happen as a result of pain or stress. What happens to the pH in the blood?
38: Anemia is a state of reduced hemoglobin content of the blood. What dietary requirement is essential for normal hemoglobin?
39: The cut off limits between anemia and normal hemoglobin are usually set at 12 g/dl for women and 13 g/dl for men. The measurement of hemoglobin is variable, and has limits of agreement around 1.2 g/dl. A man sees his doctor for a routine checkup, and the doctor finds a hemoglobin of 13.5. He checks his records and at the last check up visit, the hemoglobin was 14.2. The doctor prescribes iron medication due to the drop in the value, in order to prevent development of anemia. This decision is:
40: A marathon runner wants to increase his oxygen uptake by increasing his hemoglobin as much as possible, without using illegal methods. How can he achieve this?
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