What is a phosphoinositide? Mention two principally different ways by which phosphoinositides can mediate cell signalling

Question 1

  • (2p) What is a phosphoinositide? Mention two principally different ways by which phosphoinositides can mediate cell signalling.
  • (4p) Describe how PKB/Akt becomes activated, and how this molecule promotes cell survival and growth.


Provide examples of three distinct phosphorylation-dependent signalling pathways from the cell surface to the nucleus. Describe at least two phosphorylation events for each example.

Question 3 

Describe three ways a receptor may become desensitized (unable to signal) after ligand binding. Illustrate with drawings.

Question 4   

  • (2p) Which are the two main classes of neurotransmitter receptors? Which class gives the fastest response to neurotransmitter binding?
  • (2p) Describe the role of SNARE proteins in synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  • (2p) What is the function of dynamin in synaptic transmission?

Question 5  

  • (2p) Mention examples of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by Tolllike receptors (TLRs).
  • (5p) Describe how activation of a TLR may stimulate production of proinflammatory cytokines.

Question 6 

  • (3p) What is a nuclear receptor? Mention examples of ligands that signal through nuclear receptors.
  • (1p) Mention one mechanism by which a co-activator facilitates the activity of a nuclear receptor.
  • (1p) Mention one mechanism by which a co-repressor represses the activity of a nuclear receptor.
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