What is phagocytosis and why is it important?

 

 

  1. What is         phagocytosis and      why     is         it          important?
  2. What types     of            phagocytic         cells       do           we          have      and        what     are         their      major   characteristics?
  3. Shortly describe         the       difference       between         humoral         and      cell-mediated immunity
  4. What are      the       major  properties      of         the       innate immune          system?
  5. How is         LPS      recognized     and      what    are      the       two      main    cytokine     responses      activated         in         innate immune         cells    in        response       to        LPS?
  6. How do        cells     of         the       innate immune          system            contribute      to     activation       of         adaptive         immune          responses?
  7. Cytokines rarely  act         They   can      have    pleiotropic     effects,            redundant     effects,            synergistic      effects            or       antagonistic  effects.           Describe        these        terms.

Examination question        2

  1. Viral antigens          are      predominantly           presented       via       MHC class       I     molecules,      bacterial         antigens          via      MHC   class           What  is        the      reason     for      this?
  2. Name and      briefly explain            a          process           by        which  bacterial         antigens     can      be        presented       via       MHC   I          to        CD8+  T
  3. Why could   it          be        interesting      to         use      this      mechanism     to         develop     more   successful       vaccines?
  4. List central steps   in         T-cell          Name  accessory factors      that     are     involved         and      briefly explain           how    they    contribute     to        successful      T     cell     activation.
  5. Into which  main    effector           T          cell      subsets           can      naïve   CD4+   and     CD8+   T          differentiate   upon   activation?
  6. What factors            determine      the       differentiation           into     the       different     CD4+   T          cell      effector           lineages          and     what   are     the      main   characteristics/functions          of        the      different        subsets?

Examination question        3

  1. Draw the       structure        of         an        antibody         and     indicate          major functions
  2. Mention the       three   main    mechanisms   that     generate         immunoglobulin
  3. Where and      at         which  level    in         the       B-cell   development  do        these   processes     occur?
  4. Describe the       mechanism     of         V(D)J   recombination           (include          a          figure,     remember      to         explain            your    drawing).
  5. Describe the      mechanism    of        class
  6. Describe the       main    differences     between         a          primary          and      secondary     humoral         immune

Examination question 4

  1. Describe the      Th1/Th2       balance          briefly
  2. What type    of        immune         response       is        best    for      fighting          virus  infections?
  3. Type I           interferons     are      efficient          in         antiviral                  Shortly describe  why and         how?
  4. List the       major  pathways        of         cell      death,  and      three   mechanisms   for      induced   cell     death

Examination question

  1. Complement is             important           in            many    immune                          What     triggers      activation           of            complement?
  2. What are the  main     biological            functions of       complement    factor  split      products            a?
  3. Coombs and      Gell      classified        hypersensitivity         reactions        into     several       How    many?
  4. Why are      the       immediate      reactions        immediate      and      the       delayed           type     delayed?         Explain           in         only     a          few
  5. Explain the       development  of         the       severe hemolytic       disease           of         the     newborn

(erythroblastosis           fetalis).            You     may     illustrate         by        drawing          a     schematic.      Which type     of         hypersensitivity         is         this?    Explain           shortly     how     this      condition        may     be        treated.

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