Which of the following describes where the urea cycle takes place?

 

Section A (1 mark each)

  1. Which of the following describes where the urea cycle takes place?
    1. Mitochondria
    2. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    3. Cytosol
    4. Mitochondria and cytosol
  2. How many moles of glucose does 500 ml of a 18% glucose solution contain
    1. 1 mole
    2. 5 moles
    3. 25 moles
    4. 1 moles
  3. Which of the following provides a source of exogenous glucose
    1. Fructose
    2. Cellulose
    3. Soluble Fibre
    4. Insulin
  4. Gluconeogenesis occurs in
    1. the liver only
    2. the muscle and liver
    3. the muscle and kidney
    4. the liver and kidney
  5. Features of Conn’s syndrome include:
    1. Hypertension
    2. High Aldosterone level
    3. Hypokalemia
    4. All the above
  6. Hormones derived from tyrosine include:
    1. Glucagon
    2. Angiotensin II
    3. Thyroxine
    4. Cortisol
  7. The biological roles of glucocorticoids include:
    1. stimulation of hepatic glycolysis
    2. stimulation of protein synthesis
    3. inhibition of ACTH secretion
    4. inhibition of gluconeogenesis
  8. Which of the following is a short chain fatty acid ?
    1. C20:0
    2. C12:0
    3. C4:0
    4. C16:0
  9. Vitamins are essential components of the diet because
    1. they are vital coenzymes for metabolism
    2. they prevent deficiency diseases
    3. they cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts by the body
    4. all of the above
  10. Under which condition can arginine become conditionally indispensable ?
    1. During weight loss
    2. When the rate of growth is accelerated
    3. When the immune system is stimulated
    4. When the precursor amino acid is limited
  11. The role of the enzyme ALT is to
    1. transfer the amino group from alanine in the liver
    2. transfer the amino group from aspartate
    3. form a peptide bond using the amino group of alanine
    4. form a peptide group using the amino group of aspartate
  12. What does AMP stand for
    1. Adenosine monophosphate
    2. Arginine moderating protein
    3. Adenosine mononucleotide phosphate
    4. Alanine monophosphate
  13. Following absorption, amino acids enters the circulation via the
    1. Vena cava
    2. Hepatic portal vein
    3. Lymphatic system
    4. Hepatic artery
  14. Where is insulin produced
    1. β cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
    2. α cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
    3. liver
    4. kidney
  15. Which of the following is not formed by ketogenic amino acids?
    1. Acetoacetate
    2. Acetyl coa
    3. Acetate
    4. Acetoacetyl coa
  16. Which of the following produces primarily pro-inflammatory eicosanoids?
    1. Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)
    2. Arachidonic acid (AA)
    3. Α-Linoleic acid (ALA)
    4. Dihomo γ-linoleic acid (DGLA)
  17. Which of the following is not a regulatory enzyme of the Glycolysis ?
    1. Glucokinase
    2. PFK – 1
    3. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
    4. Pyruvate kinase
  18. Which enzyme is responsible for converting pyruvate to acetyl CoA ?
    1. pyruvate dehydrogenase
    2. alcohol dehydrogenase
    3. PFK – 1
    4. lactate dehydrogenase
  19. Under which circumstances is lactate most likely to be produced ?
    1. starvation
    2. yo – yo dieting
    3. overeating
    4. exhaustive excercise
  20. Which of the following describes whole body metabolism in a toddler ?
    1. Only catabolic
    2. Only anabolic
    3. Mostly catabolic, but also slightly anabolic
    4. Mostly anabolic, but also slightly catabolic

Section B (10 marks in total each)

  1. Lipids are incorporated into lipoproteins for distribution around the body.
    1. List the four main types of lipoproteins and indicate the main constituent of each (4 marks)
    2. Explain how the Carnitine Shuttle enables fatty acids to pass from the cytosol into the mitochondria for oxidation (6 marks)
  2. The TCA cycle is responsible for oxidizing pyruvate
    1. Explain where energy compounds are synthesised during the cycle (4 Marks)
    2. What are the key enzymes that regulate the TCA cycle and how are these enzymes regulated (6 Marks)
  3. The production of energy from fatty acids starts with β-oxidation
    1. Describe the basic steps involved in the β-oxidation of a saturated fatty acid (7 marks)
    2. How is the regulation of β-oxidation co-ordinated with fatty acid synthesis ? (3 marks)
  4. Describe the production of urea, indicating how the pathway is regulated (10 marks)
  5. The oxidation of glucose starts with glycolysis
    1. During Glycolysis, energy is used and produced. Explain the net gain of energy from 1 mole of glucose (5 Marks)
    2. Describe the regulation of glycolysis (5 marks)
  6. During metabolism, energy is produced directly (as ATP or GTP) or indirectly (as NADH and FADH2). Describe how the electron transfer chain and oxidative phosphorylation convert NADH to ATP (10 marks)
  7. Hormone levels can influence metabolism
    1. Compare and contrast 6 effects on metabolic pathways of Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease (6 marks)
    2. Explain what is meant by “negative feedback inhibition” in the control of hormone secretion. Draw a flow diagram showing the control of Thyroid hormones release (4 marks)
  8. Insulin has major metabolic effects on substrate metabolism
    1. What is the mechanism of action of Insulin (3 marks)
    2. Explain the overall metabolic effects of Insulin (7 Marks)

End of Exam

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